Sri Guru Nanak Dev Sahib Jee
Sri Guru Nanak Dev Jee came to earth to liberate humanity.
The word 'Guru' can be broken down into two words: 'gu' meaning darkness and 'ru' meaning light. The meaning refers to the understanding that a Guru is a person who brings you out from the darkness of ignorance and shows you the light of wisdom. Thus, a Guru imparts wisdom which in turn leads to liberation of the disciple. A Guru thus imparts enlightenment.
In Sikhi we had ten Gurus who graced the earth in the human form, starting with Sri Guru Nanak Dev Jee (1469 - 1539 CE). The succession of these ten Gurus ended with Sri Guru Gobind Singh Jee (1699 - 1708 CE). Sri Guru Gobind Singh Jee then appointed Sri Guru Granth Sahib Jee as the eternal Guru of the Sikhs and the embodiment of the ten Gurus. The Sri Guru Granth Sahib Jee is an anthology of the divine, revealed through scriptures which is regarded as and revered as a living Guru. Guidance is sought by reading a verse at random, known as a Hukamnaama, meaning ‘order of command’. In 1708 CE, Sri Guru Gobind Singh Jee also had five Sikhs stand in the presence of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Jee when the ceremony of Guruship was conducted - this was to teach the sangat (congregation) that Sikhs could speak to the Guru in physical form when five Sikhs of outstanding moral and spiritual nature hold a conclave. The initiation ceremony of the Sikhs called the ‘Amrit Sanchar’ is one opportunity at which the Guru is present in full glory, with five Sikhs officiating the ceremony in the presence of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Jee.
Sri Guru Nanak Dev Jee came to earth to liberate humanity.
Guru Angad Dev Jee, (Bhai Lehna ji) was born in the village named Sarai Naga (Matte Di Sarai) district Muktsar (Punjab), on April 23, 1504. He was the son of a petty trader named Pheru ji. His mother 's name was Mata Ramo ji (also Kwown as Mata Sabhirai, Mansa Devi, Daya kaur). Baba Narayan Das Trehan was his grand father, whose ancestral house was at Matte-di-Sarai near Mukatsar.
For their religious scriptures Guru Amar Das collected an anthology of writings including hymns of Guru Nanak and Guru Angad and added his own as well as those of other Hindu saints whose poems conformed to the teachings of Sikhism. All of these were in Punjabi and easily understood by the common people. When a learned Brahmin once questioned the Guru; "Why do you impart instruction to your disciples not in Sanskrit the language of gods in which all the Hindu lore is written but in their mother-tongue like Punjabi the language of the illiterate mass." To this Guru Amar Das replied; "Sanskrit is like a well deep inaccessible and confined to the elite but the language of the people is like rain water - ever fresh abundant and accessible to all." He said; "I want my doctrines to be propagated through every language which the people speak for it is not language but the content that should be considered sacred or otherwise."
Guru Ram Das ji was born at Chuna Mandi Bazaar Lahore at the site of present shrine on Thursday 2nd November 1534 and spent the first seven years of his life here. Soon after birth he was given the name Jetha meaning the first born. . As he was growing up and in his teens he could always be found in the company of religious men.
Guru Arjan Dev Ji the fifth Guru of the Sikhs was the embodiment of Godly devotion Selfless Service and Universal Love. He was the treasure of celestial knowledge and spiritual excellence. He substantially contributed towards the welfare of the society. He stood steadfastly for the principles he believed in sacrificed his own life and attained a unique and unparalleled martyrdom in the history of mankind.
Guru Arjan Dev Ji was martyred in 1606 because the Emperor Jahangir suspected him of supporting a rival to the throne of Emperor after the death of Emperor Akbar. Emperor Jehangir imprisoned Guru Arjan Dev Ji and later handed him over to Murtaza Khan (an official of Jehangir) to torture Guru Arjan Dev Ji to death. Guru Arjan Dev Ji was made to sit on a scorching iron plate and had boiling sand poured over his body. Historian record Guru Arjan Dev Ji was impervious to this pain and sat there chanting hymns. During this torture the torturer asked if the Guru would like some water but the Guru refused it defiantly historians record this spiritual strength of the Guru trembled the torturer's confidence.
Sri Guru Har Gobind was combined in his personality a saint sportsman and a soldier. His father Sri Guru Arjan Dev was a true saint but the boy Har Gobind had perceived his father's saintliness suffer and erode at the brutal hands of Mughal tyranny. When yet a little more than a child Guru Har Gobind was convinced that for sustaining the Panth sword was as essential as sainthood. He hence advocated that a Sikh Guru would represent both the Miri and Piri the Shakti and Bhakti and the Tegh and Degh. He decided to wear on his waist two swords instead of one that is one to chastise the oppressor and the other to protect the innocent." He declared that the Guru's house would henceforth combine the spiritual and the mundane powers his rosary would serve also as his sword-belt and an emblem of regality would crown his turban. He would sit in a regular court with regalia around. Sikhs were commanded to keep a sword and maintain a horse. The aureole of Guru Nanak's Sikhism and the humming melodies of his sangats had with Guru Har Gobind combined with them the dazzling brilliance and the deafening sound of swords.
Although Guru Har Rai Ji was a man of peace he never disbanded the armed Sikh Warriors (Saint Soldiers) who earlier were maintained by his grandfather Guru Hargobind. He always boosted the military spirit of the Sikhs but he never himself indulged in any direct political and armed controversy with the contemporary Mughal Empire. Once on the request of Dara Shikoh (the eldest son of emperor Shahjahan) Guru Sahib helped him to escape safely from the bloody hands of Aurangzebs armed forces during the war of succession.
Guru Har Krishan was born in Rupnagar Punjab India to Guru Har Rai and Kishan Kaur (Mata Sulakhni). Before his physical death in November 1661 Har Rai designated his younger son Har Krishan as the next Guru. Har Rai chose Har Krishan rather than his elder son Ram Rai because Ram Rai was in collusion with the Mughal Empire. Har Krishan was only five years old when he succeeded his father as Guru.
Shortly after the birth of Guru Teg Bahadur Sri Guru Har Gobind Sahib asked many priests including Baba Budha Ji and Baba Gurdas to come with him and bless the child. On seeing the child Guru Har Gobind and Baba Budha bowed to the him and touched his feet. On being asked by one of his followers to explain his actions Guru Har Gobind said that Guru Teg Bahadur was sent to this world with a great mission: he would sacrifice his own life for the welfare of others. Sri Guru Har Gobind Sahib always wore two swords; Miri (political sovereignty) and Piri (spiritual sovereignty). When Guru Har Gobind Sahib picked up his child Guru Tegh Bahadur picked up the sword that represented Piri.
Gobind Rai spent the first five years of his life in Patna. As a child he used to play war games with other children leading mock battles. He had many admirers including a learned Brahmin called Pandit Shiv Dutt (or Shiv Das). Once Raja Fateh Chand of Patna and his Rani a childless couple visited Shiv Dutt and asked him to bless them with a child. Shiv Dutt suggested that if an innocent child like Gobind Rai prayed to God their desire would be fulfilled. The couple then asked young Gobind Rai to visit their palace where the Rani asked Gobind Rai to pray to God to bless her with a son like him. Gobind Rai smiled and said that there can be nobody like him so the Rani should call him her son. From that day the Rani started calling him Bala Pritam ("child God"). The royal couple allowed Gobind Rai and his friends to freely play in their palace and also built a big dining hall for the children.
Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji was first compiled by Sri Guru Arjan Dev Sahib Ji at Amritsar between 1600-1604 Guru Ji narrated the Gurbani and Bhai Gurdas Sahib Ji was the scribe. Guru Sahib had collected the works of the previous Gurus and then added works from other saints and their own utterances of Gurbani. Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji was first installed at Harimandar Sahib (Golden Temple Amritsar) on the 16th of August 1604 with Baba Buddha Sahib Ji being the first Granthi.